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Theotokos Panachrantos or Lips monastery (Fenari Isa Camii)

Author(s) : Stankovic Nebojsa (3/22/2008)

For citation: Stankovic Nebojsa, "Theotokos Panachrantos or Lips monastery (Fenari Isa Camii)", 2008,
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Constantinople
URL: <http://kassiani.fhw.gr/l.aspx?id=10907>

Theotokos Panachrantos or Lips monastery (Fenari Isa Camii) (6/28/2007 v.1) Θεοτόκος Πανάχραντος ή Μονή Λιβός (Φεναρί Ισά Τζαμί) (6/28/2007 v.1) 
 

1. History

Lips Monastery, located in central-west Constantinople, in the Lykos valley, was founded by the patrikios Constantine Lips.1 Constantine, who fell in battle against the Bulgarians in 917, was a dignitary at the court of emperors Leo VI (886-912) and Constantine VII (905-959).2 The monastery he founded may have been just a restoration of an older foundation.3 The church, however – the only original structure that survives today – was Constantine's own commission.4 The church was dedicated to the Mother of God "Πανάχραντος"5 and inaugurated in 907, on a ceremony attended by Leo VI himself.6 Nothing else is known of the monastery, except that it may have had a hospital (ξενών) attached to it.7

Some time after the death of the emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1282, his widow Theodora undertook the restoration of the monastery. She instituted a female community and issued a typikon for it, drawn up some time between 1294 and 1301.8 The typikon fixes the number of nuns to fifty. Thirty of them were supposed to perform daily prayers and services in the church, while the remaining twenty were in charge of the household duties.9 A twelve-bed hospital, with its own paid staff, was built next to the monastery for the treatment of the laywomen.10 To the south side of Constantine's church, Theodora attached a second church, dedicated to the Prodromos, St. John the Baptist. Built before the typikon was issued,11 it was primarily envisaged as a mausoleum of the Palaiologan dynasty. Besides Theodora, who died in 1303 as nun Eugenia,12 her mother, daughter, sons Andronikos II (d. 1332) and Constantine (d. 1306) were buried there.13 In order to provide additional burial sites for family members, a long exonarthex (or perambulatory) was added to the existing churches probably in the early 14th century.14 In the late 14th century Lips monastery was described by the historian Georgios Sphrantzes as one of the larger nunneries in Constantinople.15 The emperor's attendance in celebration of the patronal feast of the Birth of the Virgin was prescribed by both the typikon and the imperial protocol.16 The last mention of the monastery before the fall of Constantinople was made by an anonymous Russian traveler, who visited the city in the second quarter of the 15th century.17

2. Afterlife

It seems that after 1453 the monastery came into the possession of the Fenari family. Around 1460-1480, Alaeddin Ali Fenari converted the south church into a mescid.18 The interior wall decorations were probably just plastered and whitewashed.19 A great fire, which swept through the city in 1633, left the building seriously damaged.20 Three years later, after removing the remaining interior decoration and rebuilding the domes and structural supports, the Grand Vizier Bayram Paşa restored the mescid as a camii, a regular mosque, and put the former north church to use as a tekke.21 The building was damaged again in fire of 1782 and 1917, after the latter remaining roofless and in ruins. Such a state made possible archaeological excavations and survey of the structure in 1929, led by Theodore Macridy.22 New excavations inside the building, followed by conservation works on its exterior, were undertaken in 1960s by the Byzantine Institute and Dumbarton Oaks. The building has been returned to use as a mosque.

3. The North Church (The Theotokos Church)

The north church consists of a naos, a tripartite sanctuary to the east, and a narthex to the west. The naos was a cross-in-square structure. The four columns that used to support vaults are missing, but three column bases have remained in their original positions. In the central bay there was a dome, which collapsed or was seriously damaged in one of the fires and was replaced by the present one.23 The north and south vaulted arms of the cross-in-square core terminate in huge triple windows on the north and south façades. The east arm extends further beyond the core, into a vaulted bema, ending at the east with an apse, triple-faceted on the outside. The bema is flanked with prothesis and diakonikon, each designed as a tiny quatrefoil, with three lobes hollowed out in the wall masses and the eastern one projecting outside into a triple-faceted apse. Both outside and inside, the walls of the church were sheathed with marble slabs.24

The three-bay narthex terminates at its narrow sides in shallow concave niches. The central outer door was originally preceded by a porch.25 There is a staircase tower attached on the south side of the narthex. The stairs were probably wooden26 and provided access to the second floor of the narthex, which functioned as a gallery.27 On this level, there are four diminutive parekklēsia, accommodated in the corners of the building, between the vaults of the naos, and carefully integrated into the overall design. They were reached presumably by exterior walkways on corbels.28 Each of the chapels consists of a quatrefoil chamber, inscribed into the wall masses. An ideal reconstruction of the church features domes elevated on drums above these chapels, but the evidence for drums is not very clear.29

Two additional single-naved parekklēsia, flanking the prothesis and diakonikon, were built integrally with the church. The north one does not exist anymore and only remains of its apse has been attested.30 The triple-faceted apse and eastern bay of the south parekklēsion have partly survived incorporated into the north aisle of the Prodromos Church.

4. The South Church (The Prodromos Church) and the Perambulatory

When the empress Theodora restored the monastery, the north church was left virtually untouched and another church was built against its south façade. It was laid out on the so-called "ambulatory church plan".31 Its central core, a simple domed square bay, is enveloped on three sides by an ambulatory.32 The east side of the domed core extends into the bema with an apse, seven-faceted on the outside. The marble floor of the bema has been preserved.33 The rest of the floor in the naos was paved in the opus sectile technique.34 The walls and vaults were covered with mosaics.35 The ambulatory is lower than the domed core and the bema, providing the access of light into the central space of the naos through triple-windows on three sides of the square core. The naos is preceded by a narthex, originally covered by a dome.36 The narthex and the ambulatory were filled with tombs, leaving the central domed core to function as the main liturgical space.

Probably shortly after the church was built, the space allotted for burials was used up.37 In order to provide extra space, a perambulatory was added, enveloping the entire west front of the two churches and the south side of the south church.38 The tombs were placed in arcosolia, built along the outer walls of the perambulatory. The interior was painted with frescoes, as suggested by fragments preserved in the westernmost arcosolium of the perambulatory's south arm.39 The façades, in their rhythm of stepped pilasters and doors, closely follow those of the two churches.

5. Sculptural Decoration

The north church provides probably the largest and the most outstanding collection of Middle Byzantine sculptural decoration in Constantinople.40 Original decorated window mullions, leveled cornices, corbels are still found in situ. The ornamental repertory consisted of foliage, palmettes, fantastic plants, rosettes, crosses, peacocks, and eagles.41 These provided inspiration for similarly decorated mullions and cornices for the south church, but they are simpler and less precise in carving.42

A great number of fragments of ornamentally carved slabs, cornices, archivolts, sculptured eagles, inlaid plaques, and glazed tiles were found in the excavations of 1929 and 1960s. Among these, there was a complete 10th-century inlaid icon of St. Eudokia.43 The glazed tiles, with painted floral and geometric ornaments, also belong to the 10th century and were probably used as borders and frames.44 A group of fragments with sculptured busts of the Apostles belonged to an archivolt, probably carved for one of the arcosolia.45

6. Evaluation

Lips Monastery is one of the most important surviving Byzantine monuments in Constantinople. The Theotokos Church, the earliest surviving example of the cross-in-square type in Constantinople, is close to the Myrelaion church in plan. However, its organization is more complex and architectural decoration richer. Its multiple-chapel solution has been essential in the study of subsidiary chapels, their liturgical function, and role in the overall design of a church. In this respect, it has often been related to the Nea Ekklēsia. The preserved elements of the church's decoration provide an idea of the quality and range of the Macedonian Renaissance decorative art employed in a building belonging to the highest social stratum. The small number of surviving monuments from this period makes it even more important.

The empress Theodora chose Lips Monastery for her family's mausoleum perhaps because of its proximity to the Holy Apostles. The addition of the Prodromos Church seems to have been inspired by the complex of the Pantokrator Monastery, the dynastic mausoleum of the Komnēnoi. Its ambulatory church plan evokes the design of the Pantokrator's heroon. However, the architecture of Theodora's church has its own value. That especially applies to the sculptural modeling of its apses and playful brickwork ornamentation, which put the eastern side of the church in stark contrast to that of its north neighbor. Furthermore, the situation in which survive both the typikon and the actual church to which it applies, makes Lips Monastery important for the study of Late Byzantine church planning in regard to liturgical and funerary practices.

1. Cutler A. - Kazhdan A., "Lips", in A. Kazhdan (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 2 (New York - Oxford 1991) 1232-1233 and Cutler A. - Talbot A.-M., "Lips Monastery", in A. Kazhdan (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 2 (New York - Oxford 1991)1233; Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1254.

2. On Constantine Lips, see Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 256; Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 299-300; Cutler A. - Kazhdan A., "Lips", in A. Kazhdan (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 2 (New York - Oxford 1991) 1232; and Marinis V., The Monastery tou Libos: Architecture, Sculpture, and Liturgical Planning in Middle and Late Byzantine Constantinople (PhD Diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 2005) 23-27, 29-31.

3. The renovation of the monastery is vaguely implied by the words of Scylitzes "τὴν καινουργηθεĩσαν παρ' αὐτοῦ μονήν". Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 255 accepted this thesis and elaborated it further on the following pages of his study. Although the excavations of the 1960s yielded no evidence for existence of remains of earlier structures below the present church, Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 280 leaves the possibility open.

4. As shown by Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 280 ff.

5. A fragmentarily preserved verse inscription, carved on a cornice that runs along the exterior of the three central apses, mentions a certain Constantine, who dedicated the church to the Mother of God “Πανάχραντος”. For the fullest reconstruction of the inscription’s text, see Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 300-301. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 259 also described the central door lintel with three discs bearing monograms, one of which he read as "Constantine".

6. Συνεχισταί Θεοφάνους, Χρονογραφία, Bekker I. (ed.), Theophanes Continuatus (Bonn 1838) p. 371, 12-18. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 256, n. 17; Gerstel S. E., "Saint Eudokia and the Imperial Household of Leo VI", The Art Bulletin 79 (1997) 706, n. 61. For the date of the inauguration of the monastery, see Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 300.

7. Πάτρια Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Preger Th. (ed.), Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum (Leipzig 1901; repr. New York 1975) p. 289. This source, however, is not considered reliable; see Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1254 and Cutler A. - Kazhdan A., "Lips", in A. Kazhdan (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 2 (New York - Oxford 1991) 1232.

8. The typikon has been preserved in a luxury codex, British Library Additional 22748 (14th c.), which is probably its original version; cf. Talbot A.-M., "Empress Theodora Palaiologina, Wife of Michael VIII", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 46 (1992) 301. The Greek text of the typikon was published by Delehaye H., Deux typica byzantins de lépoque des Paléologues (Brussels 1921) 106-136. An English translation with notes is in Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1265-1286. For the date when the typikon was written, see Talbot A.-M., "Empress Theodora Palaiologina, Wife of Michael VIII", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 46 (1992) 299.

9. Typikon, article 4, Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1267.

10. Typikon, articles 1 and 50, Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1265, 1281.

11. Mango C., Byzantine Architecture (New York 1976) 266.

12. Talbot A.-M., "Empress Theodora Palaiologina, Wife of Michael VIII", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 46 (1992) 302, n. 67.

13. Theodora prescribed in the typikon, article 42, Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1278 a place in the Church of St. John for her own and her mother's tomb and mentioned that her daughter had already been buried in the same church. In the same article she made allowances for her children and grandchildren to be buried in the church if they express a desire to do so. For the burials of Andronikos II and his brother Constantine, see Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1254-1255, n. 9.

14. See Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 270 (n. 57), and Marinis V., The Monastery tou Libos: Architecture, Sculpture, and Liturgical Planning in Middle and Late Byzantine Constantinople (PhD Diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 2005) 22. Remnants of a wall painting were discovered in the westernmost arcosolium by Mango C.- Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Finds at Fenari Isa Camii, Istanbul", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968) 178, who dated it to ca. 1320.

15. Cf. Cutler A. - Talbot A.-M., "Lips Monastery", in A. Kazhdan (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 2 (New York - Oxford 1991) 1233.

16. Typikon, articles 37 and 39, Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1276-1277; Ψευδο-Κωδινός, Περί των οφφικίων, Verpeaux J. (ed.), Pseudo-Kodinos, Traité des offices (Le monde byzantin 1, Paris 1966) p. 242, 15-17.

17. Majeska G., Russian Travelers to Constantinople in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (Washington DC 1984) 310-311.

18. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 253; Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1255. The tombs located in the former Church of St. John were opened and cleared of human remains, as prescribed by Islamic laws pertaining to the establishment of a mosque.

19. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 253.

20. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 253-54; Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1255.

21. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 253-54; Thomas J. - Hero A. C., Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. A Complete Translation of Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington DC 2000) 1255.

22. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 251 (Mango's comments).

23. The subdivision of the preserved dome cornice, marked with six eagles, suggests that the original drum was pierced by either six or twelve windows: cf. Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 306-307.

24. Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 288; Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 306.

25. The foundations of this porch were recorded within both surveys, of 1929 and 1960s. For an ideal reconstruction, see Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 295.

26. Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 294-95.

27. The gallery communicates visually with the naos through a triple arcade; cf. Krautheimer R., Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (New Haven - London 1986) 358-359.

28. Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 290-291. In a series of articles, Nikolai Brunov reconstructed the church as having additional aisles along each lateral side: cf. Brunov N., "Zum Problem des Kreuzkuppelsystems", Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik 16 (1967) 245-261 and Брунов Н., "К вопросу о средневековой архитектуре Константинополя", Византийский временник 28 (1968) 159-191. According to him, the roof terraces on top of these aisles provided access to the second-floor parekklēsia. For the most recent discussion of the problem whether there were outer aisles or not, see Marinis V., The Monastery tou Libos: Architecture, Sculpture, and Liturgical Planning in Middle and Late Byzantine Constantinople (PhD Diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 2005) 8, 44-58.

29. Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 292. At each of the two eastern chapels, Megaw saw "remains of a substantial stone foundation of octagonal form standing on the pendentives", which he considered the base of a drum. However, published and unpublished photographs, taken during the survey, show no evidence whatsoever regarding the stone foundation reported by Megaw. Cf. also Marinis V., The Monastery tou Libos: Architecture, Sculpture, and Liturgical Planning in Middle and Late Byzantine Constantinople (PhD Diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 2005) 62-63, who does not see a reason for domes to be placed over the antechambers of the western chapels instead over their sanctuary areas.

30. Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 286.

31. This plan, known from Early Byzantine times on, was revived in Middle Byzantine architecture (e.g. the core of the Pammakaristos Church). Whether it had survived or was revived again in the 13th century remains open; cf. Krautheimer R., Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (New Haven - London 1986) 417, 423.

32. Originally, between the four corner piers there were three pairs of columns, which were part of triple arcades opening to the ambulatory. Four out of six column bases were found by Macridy under the Ottoman floor; Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 265-266. Original triple arcades were filled up in one of the several Ottoman reconstructions of the building, but their steep arches are still discernable: Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 266. The present dome is also the result of a rebuilding (ibidem).

33. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 266. One can still see the holes where the legs of the altar table were fixed, as well as the slots for a marble templon.

34. Only two fragments remain: Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 267.

35. There are remnants of mosaic decoration in the arcosolia of the ambulatory's south arm: Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 267.

36. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 265.

37. The perambulatory was not built integrally with the south church, as the joint of their eastern walls demonstrates: cf. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 267.

38. The present rough finish of the perambulatory's northwest corner suggests that originally it may have enveloped the complex on the north side as well. See Megaw A. H. S., "The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 287-88.

39. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 268; Mango C.- Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Finds at Fenari Isa Camii, Istanbul", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968) 177-178.

40. Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 304.

41. See Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) passim, and Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) passim.

42. See Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 309-310.

43. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 273-75. For a possible historical context of this icon, see Gerstel S. E., "Saint Eudokia and the Imperial Household of Leo VI", The Art Bulletin 79 (1997) 699-707.

44. Mango C. - Hawkins E. J. W., "Additional Notes on the Monastery of Lips", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 310-11; Mango M. M., "Polychrome Tiles Found at Istanbul: Typology, Chronology, and Function", in Gerstel S. E. - Lauffenburger J. A. (eds.), A Lost Art Rediscovered: The Architectural Ceramics of Byzantium (Baltimore 2001) 13-41.

45. Macridy T., "The Monastery of Lips and the Burials of the Palaeologi", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 252 (Mango's comments). Both the archivolt and the inlaid icon of St. Eudokia are now in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.

     
 
 
 
 
 

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