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Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)

Author(s) : Stankovic Vlada (10/30/2008)
Translation : Loumakis Spyridon

For citation: Stankovic Vlada, "Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)",
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Constantinople
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=11794>

Μακεδονική δυναστεία (867-1056) (6/28/2011 v.1) Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) (6/28/2011 v.1) 



Byzantine fiscal term, designating the collective responsibility of a fiscal unit to pay a certain amount of taxes.

A high honorary title in the Byzantine court. It was introduced in late 9th c. by E. Leo VI for Stylianos Zaoutzes and it was reserved for the father-in-law of the Byzantine emperor. It does not occur after the 10th c.

In the Roman Empire the title of Caesar was given to the Emperor. From the reign of Diocletian (284-305) on this title was conferred on the young co-emperor. This was also the highest title on the hierarchy of the Byzantine court. In the 8th c. the title of Caesar was usually given to the successor of the throne. In the late 11th c. this office was downgraded and from the 14th c. on it was mainly conferred on foreign princes.

domestikos ton scholon
Commander of the regiment of scholae. The first officer with this title appears in 767/8. In the 10th C the domesticos became very powerful among the army of the themata; in mid-10th C the office was divided in two, domestikoi ton scholon of the East and those of the West, commanders in chief of the eastern and the western provinces´ army respectively.

doukas (lat. dux)
Antiquity: Roman military commander who, in some provinces, combined military and civil functions.Buzantium: a higher military officer. From the second half of the 10th c. the title indicates the military comander of a larger district. After the 12th c., doukes were called the governors of small themes.

hypatos ton philosophon
(consul of the philosophers) Byzantine official and scholar responsible for the public schools of philosophy. The first one was Michael Psellos (11th C.), whose successors were John Italos and Theodore of Smyrna etc.

(from "epano","above") Governor of a katepania. Title that from the end of the 10th century characterized the commanders of large provinces as Italy or Mesopotamia and from the 11th century, it was used also in the regions of Bulgaria, Antioch etc.

Officer responsible for the guard of law and the publication of the resolutions. Quite often the holder of the office undertook the costs himself. In Byzantium he was the nomodidaskalos (nomikos), the appointed dignitary in charge of the funtion of the Law School.

novel (novella)
Τerm meaning ad verbum "new decree" and used since around the 4th century in order to denote the provisions of the emperors as separate from the organized codes. They were written mainly in Greek and used extensively in the Middle Byzantine Era. Since the days of Komnenoi and after, they were replaced by other more specialized terms and they are very rare in the Late Byzantine era

Τhe guardian of the imperial private chambers. This high office was given usually to eunuchs that were persons of confidence, since they could not ascend to the throne. From the 9th and up to the 11th century, this office assumed a great importance and there were παρακοιμώμενοι that played important roles in the course of the empire, such as Joseph Bringa.

protimesis (preemption)
The right of certain categories of persons to preemption in cases of the sale of property. According to a novel of Romanos I (934), the poor peasants who sold their land when in need, could by right of protimesis buy their land back in no high a price. This right of the small landowners was abolished under Nikephoros II Phokas.

Slav (Sclaveni) settlements, which had the form of autonomous communities. Sclaviniae were initially developped in the region around Danube and they gradually expanded in the entire Balkanic peninsula.

A political and ecclesiastical controversy that followed the fourth marriage of emperor Leo VI (886-912). Since his only male heir had been a product of this marriage, it was of vital importance to leo to have the marriage recognised, whereas to the Church this was unacceptable. The issue was finally resolved in the Council of Constantinople in 920.

A Byzantine term that signifies wide military and administrative units under the administration of a strategos (general). The institution was consolidated in the 7th century and was characteristic for the organization and the division of Byzantine Empire at the Middle Byzantine period. The term applies also to the army unit that resided in each administrative unit and was staffed by farmer-soldiers. The thematic system was maintained until the end of Byzantine period. However, in the Later Byzantine period it was used in order to declare mostly tax units.


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