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"System of the Merchants" of Constantinople and the Commercial Encyclopedia

"System of the Merchants" of Constantinople and the Commercial Encyclopedia (27/4/2007 v.1) Το "Σύστημα των εμπόρων" της Κωνσταντινούπολης και η Εμπορική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια (13/4/2007 v.1)

The "System of the Greek Grand-merchants" in Constantinople-Istanbul (Σύστημα των εν Κωνσταντινουπόλει Ελλήνων Μεγαλεμπόρων) was the guild of the Greek grand-merchants of Constantinople. Within the framework of the System, the important work of Nikolaos Papadopoulos Commercial Encyclopedia was published.



Banks and Greek Orthodox bankers in Constantinople

Banks and Greek Orthodox bankers in Constantinople - to be assigned Τράπεζες και ρωμιοί τραπεζίτες στην Κωνσταντινούπολη (13/4/2007 v.1)

During the 19th century, a distinctive, powerful group of Greek Orthodox bankers was active primarily in the fiscal policy of the Ottoman Empire. They have been known as the Galata Bankers, due to the location of their credit foundations.



Cibali (2/5/2007 v.1) Τζιμπαλί (13/4/2007 v.1)

Cibali is located along the city walls of the Golden Horn, shortly before Fanari (Fener) and very close to the modern site of Unkapı. Right after the Ottoman conquest the area was inhabited by Christian Orthodox and Jews, whereas during the 19th century it became the home of Greek Orthodox immigrants from the Balkans and Asia Minor. With the signing of the Lausanne treaty and the exchange of populations, the Orthodox community started weakening numerically.



Settlements with Greek-Orthodox population in the vilayet of Istanbul, 19th - 20th century

Settlements with Greek-Orthodox population in the vilayet of Istanbul, 19th - 20th century - to be assigned Το οικιστικό πλέγμα των οικισμών των Ρωμιών στο βιλαέτι Κωνσταντινούπολης, 19ος - 20ός αιώνας - to be assigned


Tatavla (Kurtuluş)

Tatavla (Kurtuluş) (2/5/2007 v.1) Ταταύλα (13/4/2007 v.1)

The Tatavla district is located on the European coast of Constantinople (Istanbul). The first settlements date back to the middle of the 16th century during the reign of the Sultan Süleyman I the Magnificent (1520-1566), when the location there of Orthodox former captives of the Ottoman fleet is documented. During the 19th and the early 20th century, it was a numerous community, the inhabitants of which belonged to the middle strata of the Greek-Orthodox Istanbul society. Since the 1960s,...



Tekfur Sarayı (Palace of the Porphyrogennetus)

Tekfur Sarayı (Palace of the Porphyrogennetus) (28/6/2007 v.1) Τεκφούρ σαράι (To Παλάτι του Πορφυρογέννητου) (12/4/2007 v.1)

Tekfur Sarayi, or the “Palace of Porphyrogennetos”, constitutes the only surviving late Byzantine palace of Constantinople. It is a trapezoid-shaped three-story building which is situated on the northern end of the land walls of Theodosios II. In terms of arrangement, it bears similarities with the south wing of the palace of Mistra, whereas its morphology resembles similar buildings of the West. It is dated to the 14th century, based on its wall masonry and its morphological elements.




Tetrapylon (17/4/2008 v.1) Τετράπυλο (17/4/2008 v.1)

The no-longer extant Bronze Tetrapylon was the main landmark in south-western quarter of Constantinople. As a pagan triumphal structure at the crossing of cardo and decumanus, this four-columned monument marked the intersection of the Mese and avenue connecting the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara. By the 10th century, the Tetrapylon sheltered the relics of the Forty Martyrs, confirming the long-living tradition of triumphal tetrapyla within a Christian context.



Theodosian Walls

Theodosian Walls (27/6/2007 v.1) Τείχη Θεοδοσίου Β' (12/4/2007 v.1)

The fortifications that were built in Constantinople in order to replace the original walls of Constantine I date to the period of Theodosios II (408-450) and were repaired many times throuhout the centuries. The walls of Theodosios had three defensive lines (moat, outer wall and main wall) and remained practically impenetrable until 1453.



Topography of Byzantine Constantinople

Topography of Byzantine Constantinople (8/2/2008 v.1) Τοπογραφία της βυζαντινής Κωνσταντινούπολης (8/2/2008 v.1)

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις, “the city of Constantine”), the capital of the Byzantine empire, was founded in 324 by emperor Constantine I (306/324-337) on the southern part of the Bosporos, on the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantion. From the beginning it was also named New Rome. In subsequent centuries Constantinople flourished considerably, becoming renown for its expansive wealth and beauty. Constantinople’s conquest by the Ottomans in May 29, 1453, put an end to Byzantium as a...



Topography of Ottoman Constantinople (Istanbul)

Topography of Ottoman Constantinople (Istanbul) - has not been published yet Τοπογραφία της Οθωμανικής Κωνσταντινούπολης (13/4/2007 v.1)

Presentation of the urban development in Constantinople and the neighbouring settlements during the Ottoman occupation, emphasising on the dispersion of the Greek Orthodox population.